Snort_inline: running Snort_inline 2.6.0.2

No, it’s not released. But it wil be soon… really!

William has done most of the hard work of porting our Snort_inline patch from 2.4.5 to 2.6. I have mostly been working on improving the stream4inline modification. I have written about this before. Like the stream4inline modification in Snort_inline 2.4.5 it scans the stream in a sliding window, making it possible to drop an attack detected in the reassembled stream. The new code does the same but is much faster, at the cost of higher memory usage.

Another interesting feature is that it keeps track of the number of sequence holes there are in a stream, and it can force a stream to get back in order. This limit can be enforced by the number of out-of-order packets and bytes, and also by the number of simultanious sequence number holes. Inspired by the paper by Sarang Dharmapurikar and Vern Paxson.

Last but not least it adds support for window scaling to stream4. Since window scaling adds the possibility to have window sizes of up a gigabyte, I’ve added a normalizing function as well, that can force all streams to use a configurable maximum wscale setting.

But it is running on my gateway now, which is also the gateway leading to this blog, so if it is unavailable to you, you’ve hit a bug 😉

Snort_inline: idea for an improved bait-and-switch

William Metcalf recently wrote a bait-and-switch plugin for Snort_inline. The idea is that when a rule matches on certain traffic this plugin loads an iptables rule into the system that redirects the offending host to another server. This can present the user an error message such as “Access Denied” for example, but this server can also have al kinds of sniffing tools, or even be a honeypot.

As the plugin currently creates an iptables rule it only works with linux. Also, it has some difficulty with existing iptables rulesets that might be maintained by other programs, such as my own Vuurmuur. My idea is to investigate whether or not it is possible to simply do the redirection in Snort_inline itself. By rewriting the ipaddress in the IP header, it might work as well. Naturally, this would need to be done for every packet, but with a connection to either the flow engine or the stream engine, this should be able to work… just a thought…

Snort_inline: Adapting the TCP stream reassembler

Currently I am rewriting a modification of the TCP reassembler in Snort_inline. Snort’s TCP reassembler is called Stream4 and it works fairly well in IDS mode, however it has some serious issues in inline mode. The biggest and most important issue is that Snort_inline cannot block an attack if it is detected in the reassembled stream. In Snort_inline 2.4 we made our first attempt to fix this with the stream4inline modification.

Stream4 was never designed to be used inline. It was designed to help the detection capabilities of Snort in IDS mode. This had a large consequence for the design. In Stream4, incoming packets are stored in a per-stream list of packets, before the packet is handled normally. After a number of packets have been piled up this way, the stream is flushed. This flush builds a pseudo packet containing the payloads of all the ack’d packets in the list. This pseudo packet is than ran through the detection engine, to see if it contains an attack. This works fine for IDS mode, since this way the attacks can be detected in the reassembled stream.

When running in inline this concept has a big flaw. In inline mode we can use the action drop. This action makes sure that the underlying subsystem (netfilter or ipfilter) discards the packet, making sure it will not reach the destination. The problem with Stream4 is that at the time the pseudo packet is inspected, its content is already accepted and ack’d by the end-host. This situation is of course very unsatisfying.

To deal with this problem in Snort_inline 2.4 we created the stream4inline option. This option is a modification to Stream4 that simply reassembles the stream for every packet received. Then instead of the normal packet, the reassembled stream is scanned every time. There are two performance problems with this approach. The first is that we call the functions to build the pseudo packet for every packet we receive. Since this function walks the packet list every time, this is expensive.

The second problem is harder to solve. Because we scan a sliding window, we end up scanning the same data multiple times. I have not really thought of an (easy) solution for this. The rewrite of the stream4inline option is mostly focused on two improvements. First the performance of the reassembly itself will be improved by keeping a cached version of the reassembled stream. Second, the implementation will be much better and robust. I will discuss it on a more technical level later.